New HSC Syllabus 2018-05-11T05:41:52+00:00

New HSC Syllabus

Learn more about the New HSC Syllabus for chemistry, physics and biology!

Our New Syllabus Classes Have Already Started!

  • Gain a full understanding of all New Syllabus dotpoints
  • Supercharge your practise with 1000’s of New Syllabus Exam Style questions

  • Solve new and challenging scientific theories with ease

Get Started With My Free Trial

What is the New HSC Syllabus?

In 2018, students undertaking the 2019 HSC will be starting the New HSC Science Syllabus in Chemistry, Physics and Biology. In 2019 you will have the opportunity to take the newly introduced Extension Science.

Topics in the New Science Syllabus

  Chemistry Physics Biology
Module 1 Properties and Structure of Matter Kinematics Cells as a basis for life
Module 2 Introduction to Quantitative Chemistry Dynamics Organisation of Living Things
Module 3 Reactive Chemistry Waves and Thermodynamics Biological Diversity
Module 4 Drivers of Reaction Electricity and Magnetism Ecosystem Dynamics

CHANGES IN CHEMISTRY

There is a renewed focus on applying Mathematical Principles to the Study of Chemistry

A full list of the New Syllabus dotpoints being covered:

  • New types of notation
  • The Bohr and Schrodinger models
  • The Ideal Gas Law
  • Enthalpy and Hess’s Law
  • Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ applications of chemical practices
  • Calculating the Equilibrium Constant
  • Analysis of organic compounds

CHANGES IN PHYSICS

Similarly, Physics also has a much stronger emphasise on applying Mathematical Principles

A full list of the New Syllabus dotpoints being covered:

  • Analysis of forces and motion in two dimensions using vectors
  • Standing waves
  • The Doppler effect
  • Elementary thermodynamics
  • Wave and quantum models of light
  • Study of the Standard Model of matter

CHANGES IN BIOLOGY

Changes in biology include a focus on a variation of new modules and Aboriginal studies

A full list of the New Syllabus dotpoints being covered:

  • Disease as a disruption of homeostasis
  • Cells and chemical energy
  • Investigating extinction events
  • Paleontological and Geological investigations surrounding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures
  • Evidence of past changes in ecosystems
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genetic drift
  • Pharmaceuticals and the control of infectious diseases
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ protocols for medicines
Get My Free Trial
Get My Free Trial
Get My Free Trial

How you can succeed in the New HSC Syllabus?

1. Know Your Syllabus

Just like the old syllabus, knowing the new syllabus is crucial to any Science student

Why is it so important? Anything and everything an exam can ask is within the syllabus. A common mistake many students make is studying irrelevant content that will NEVER be tested.

At Synergy, we’ve already finished preparing our notes for you. All content is structured so that you spend minimal time studying.

2. Glossary of Keywords

Keywords will also be important in the New Syllabus

In your exams you’ll realise that keywords such as ‘Assess’, ‘Explain’ and ‘Discuss’ are very common. Each verb has a unique method of answering the question. For example:

Explain – Relate cause and effect; make relationships between things evident; provide why and/or how

Discuss – Identify issues and provide points for and/or against

Usually, it will cost 1 or 2 marks if you don’t answer a question with the correct method for the verb. That’s almost 10-15% of your exam gone!

The most effective method to maximise your marks is to practise! You will find our teachers consistently emphasise on verbs in class and you’ll become familiar with them in not time!

3. First Principles

You will never succeed in the sciences by memorising.

There is a very strong focus from NESA for students to learn sciences from FIRST PRINCIPLES.

What is the difference between Rote Learning and First Principles?

Rote learning involves the memorisation of for example a formula.

First principles involves understanding how the formula was derived. This is important because you can apply your understanding to ANY question they give you.

Here is another reminder in why first principles understanding will be crucial to your HSC success:

‘HSC examination questions will be less predictable so students must apply their knowledge and skills in their answers’.

4. Practicals

The New Syllabus will require you to perform MORE experiments and practicals. Across the sciences, it will make up 20-30% of your coursework.

Practicals is something most students DON’T study much.

For practicals you need to know how to:

– Set-up
– Method
– Interpret results

You will also need to know how to evaluate reliability, accuracy and validity for all experiments you undertake.

To help you solidify your understanding in experiments, we undertake in-class practicals. With a comprehensive guide to answering all types of experiment related questions.

This is why our students are consistently able to come top in their practical exams as well as achieve an average of 93 in both physics and chemistry.

Old vs New Syllabus Exam Questions

Development Questions Concept Driven Calculation Practicals
Old Syllabus Weighting 30% 20 – 30% 20% 10%
New Syllabus Weighting 5 – 10% 30 – 40% 30 – 40% 10 – 20%
Description These are your long response type questions that are 5 – 7 marks in the old syllabus exams. In the New Syllabus there WILL still be these types of questions but much less. These types of questions require providing definitions, concepts and derivations. As there are less development type questions in the New Syllabus, it is replaced with new concepts. Since multiple new concepts are being introduced, there will inevitably be new calculation type questions. Again, with new concepts being introduced there is a higher focus on experiments and conducting practicals.

Are past papers still relevant for the New HSC Syllabus?

IN SHORT, YES THEY STILL ARE!

WHY? The fundamentals of many dotpoints are still the same except for the ones that have been removed.

Hence, about 50-70% of past paper questions are still completely relevant!

Here is a summary of dotpoints that have been REMOVED. If come across them in past papers, just SKIP THEM! To save you time, we have indicated in each of our past papers the types of questions that are still relevant. 

Year 11 Chemistry

Topic
Section
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

Topic:Chemical Energy
Section:The living and non-living components of the Earth contain mixtures

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds

Topic:Metals
Section:Metals have been extracted and used for many thousands of years

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as uncombined metals or as alloys
  • identify why there are more metals available for people to use now than there were 200 years ago
  • analyse information to relate the chronology of the Bronze Age, the Iron Age and the modern era and possible future developments

Section:As metals and other elements were discovered, scientists recognised that patterns in their physical and chemical properties could be used to organise the elements into a Periodic Table

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • outline the history of the development of the Periodic Table including its origins, the original data used to construct it and the predictions made after its construction

Section:The relative abundance and ease of extraction of metals influences their value and breadth of use in the community

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • define the terms mineral and ore with reference to economic and non-economic deposits of natural resources
  • describe the relationship between the commercial prices of common metals, their actual abundances and relative costs of production
  • explain why ores are non-renewable resources
  • discuss the importance of predicting yield in the identification, mining and extraction of commercial ore deposits
  • justify the increased recycling of metals in our society and across the world
  • analyse information to compare the cost and energy expenditure involved in the extraction of aluminium from its ore and the recycling of aluminium
  • recount the steps taken to recycle aluminium

Topic:Water
Section:Water is distributed on Earth as a solid, liquid and gas

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • compare the state, percentage and distribution of water in the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere
  • outline the significance of the different states of water on Earth in terms of water as:
  • a constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in metabolism
  • a habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby terrestrial habitats
  • an agent of weathering of rocks both as liquid and solid
  • a natural resource for humans and other organisms

Section:Water has a higher heat capacity than many other liquids

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • explain why water’s ability to absorb heat is important to aquatic organisms and to life on earth generally
  • explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the implications for life if a body of water is affected by thermal pollution

Topic:Energy
Section:Living organisms make compounds which are important sources of energy

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify the photosynthetic origins of the chemical energy in coal, petroleum and natural gas
  • process and present information from secondary sources on the range of compounds found in either coal, petroleum or natural gas and on the location of deposits of the selected fossil fuel in Australia
Year 11 Physics

Topic
Section
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

Topic:The World Communicates
Section:The wave model can be used to explain how current technologies transfer information

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • describe the energy transformations required in one of the following:
    • Mobile telephone
    • Fax/modem
    • Radio & television

Topic:Electrical Energy in the Home
Section:Society has become increasingly dependent on electricity over the last 200 years

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • discuss how the main sources of domestic energy have changed over time
  • assess some of the impacts of changes in, and increased access to, sources of energy for a community
  • discuss some of the ways in which electricity can be provided in remote locationsidentify data sources, gather, process and analyse secondary information about the differing views of Volta and Galvani about animal and chemical electricity and discuss whether their different views contributed to increased understanding of electricity

Topic:Cosmic Engine
Section:Our Sun is just one star in the galaxy and ours is just on galaxy in the Universe

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • outline the historical development of models of the Universe from the time of Aristotle to the time of Newton
  • identify data sources, and gather, process and analyse information to assess one of the models of the Universe developed from the time of Aristotle to the time of Newton to identify limitations placed on the development of the model by the technology available at the time

Topic:Moving About
Section:ALL SECTIONS ARE RELEVANT

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

Year 11 Biology

Topic
Section
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

Topic:A Local Ecosystem
Section:The distribution, diversity and numbers of plants and animals found in ecosystems are determined by biotic and abiotic factors

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • compare the abiotic characteristics of aquatic and terrestrial environments
    process and analyse information obtained from a variety of sampling studies to justify the use of different sampling techniques to make population estimates when total counts cannot be performed

Section:Each local aquatic or terrestrial ecosystem is unique

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify examples of allelopathy, parasitism, mutualism and commensalism in an ecosystem and the role of organisms in each type of relationship
  • describe the role of decomposers in ecosystems
  • define the term adaptation and discuss the problems associated with inferring characteristics of organisms as adaptations for living in a particular habitat

Topic:Life on Earth
Section:The fossil record provides information about the subsequent evolution of living things

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

ALL DOTPOINTS REMOVED

Section:Analysis of the oldest sedimentary rocks provides evidence for the origin of life
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus
ALL DOTPOINTS REMOVED

Topic:Evolution of Australian Biota
Section:Evidence for the rearrangement of crustal plates and continental drift indicates that Australia was once part of an ancient super continent
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus
ALL DOTPOINTS REMOVED

Section:Continuation of species has resulted, in part, from the reproductive adaptations that have evolved in Australian plants and animals
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus
ALL DOTPOINTS REMOVED

Topic:Patterns in Nature
Section:Organisms are made of cells that have similar structural characteristics

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • outline the historical development of the cell theory, in particular, the contributions of Robert Hooke and Robert Brown
  • describe evidence to support the cell theory

Section:Plants and animals have specialised structures to obtain nutrients from their environment

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • explain the relationship between the length and overall complexity of digestive systems of a vertebrate herbivore and a vertebrate carnivore with respect to:
    • the chemical composition of their diet
    • the functions of the structures involved

Section:Gaseous exchange and transport systems transfer chemicals through the internal and between the external environments of plants and animals

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify and compare the gaseous exchange surfaces in an insect, a fish, a frog and a mammal

Section:Maintenance of organisms requires growth and repair

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify mitosis as a process of nuclear division and explain its role
  • identify the sites of mitosis in plants, insects and mammals
  • explain the need for cytokinesis in cell division

Excited to learn more?

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    Bruce Qi

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    Clear, well-structured theory booklets which address syllabus dotpoints effectively + teachers that know their stuff and are relatable. Oh and... read more

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New HSC Syllabus

Learn more about the New HSC Syllabus for chemistry, physics and biology!

Our New Syllabus Classes Have Already Started!

  • Gain a full understanding of all New Syllabus dotpoints

  • Supercharge your practise with 1000’s of New Syllabus Exam Style questions

  • Solve new and challenging scientific theories with ease

Get Started With My Free Trial

What is the New HSC Syllabus?

In 2018, students undertaking the 2019 HSC will be starting the New HSC Science Syllabus in Chemistry, Physics and Biology. In 2019 you will have the opportunity to take the newly introduced Extension Science.

“About 70% of the New Syllabus will cover topics from the old HSC Syllabus and about 30% will be entirely new concepts and topics”

Amir Sirder, PhD Candidate for Physics and Synergy Education resource co-ordinator

Topics in the New Science Syllabus

  Chemistry Physics Biology
Module 1 Properties and Structure of Matter Kinematics Cells as a basis for life
Module 2 Introduction to Quantitative Chemistry Dynamics Organisation of Living Things
Module 3 Reactive Chemistry Waves and Thermodynamics Biological Diversity
Module 4 Drivers of Reaction Electricity and Magnetism Ecosystem Dynamics

scroll right 🙂

CHANGES IN CHEMISTRY

There is a renewed focus on applying Mathematical Principles to the Study of Chemistry

A full list of the New Syllabus dotpoints being covered:

  • New types of notation
  • The Bohr and Schrodinger models
  • The Ideal Gas Law
  • Enthalpy and Hess’s Law
  • Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ applications of chemical practices
  • Calculating the Equilibrium Constant
  • Analysis of organic compounds

CHANGES IN PHYSICS

Similarly, Physics also has a much stronger emphasise on applying Mathematical Principles

A full list of the New Syllabus dotpoints being covered:

  • Analysis of forces and motion in two dimensions using vectors
  • Standing waves
  • The Doppler effect
  • Elementary thermodynamics
  • Wave and quantum models of light
  • Study of the Standard Model of matter

CHANGES IN BIOLOGY

Changes in biology include a focus on a variation of new modules and Aboriginal studies

A full list of the New Syllabus dotpoints being covered:

  • Disease as a disruption of homeostasis
  • Cells and chemical energy
  • Investigating extinction events
  • Paleontological and Geological investigations surrounding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures
  • Evidence of past changes in ecosystems
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genetic drift
  • Pharmaceuticals and the control of infectious diseases
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ protocols for medicines
Get My Free Trial

How you can succeed in the New HSC Syllabus?

1. Know Your Syllabus

Just like the old syllabus, knowing the new syllabus is crucial to any Science student

Why is it so important? Anything and everything an exam can ask is within the syllabus. A common mistake many students make is studying irrelevant content that will NEVER be tested.

At Synergy, we’ve already finished preparing our notes for you. All content is structured so that you spend minimal time studying.

2. Glossary of Keywords

Keywords will also be important in the New Syllabus

In your exams you’ll realise that keywords such as ‘Assess’, ‘Explain’ and ‘Discuss’ are very common. Each verb has a unique method of answering the question. For example:

Explain – Relate cause and effect; make relationships between things evident; provide why and/or how

Discuss – Identify issues and provide points for and/or against

Usually, it will cost 1 or 2 marks if you don’t answer a question with the correct method for the verb. That’s almost 10-15% of your exam gone!

The most effective method to maximise your marks is to practise! You will find our teachers consistently emphasise on verbs in class and you’ll become familiar with them in not time!

3. First Principles

You will never succeed in the sciences by memorising.

There is a very strong focus from NESA for students to learn sciences from FIRST PRINCIPLES.

What is the difference between Rote Learning and First Principles?

Rote learning involves the memorisation of for example a formula.

First principles involves understanding how the formula was derived. This is important because you can apply your understanding to ANY question they give you.

Here is another reminder in why first principles understanding will be crucial to your HSC success:

‘HSC examination questions will be less predictable so students must apply their knowledge and skills in their answers’.

4. Practicals

The New Syllabus will require you to perform MORE experiments and practicals. Across the sciences, it will make up 20-30% of your coursework.

Practicals is something most students DON’T study much.

For practicals you need to know how to:

– Set-up
– Method
– Interpret results

You will also need to know how to evaluate reliability, accuracy and validity for all experiments you undertake.

To help you solidify your understanding in experiments, we undertake in-class practicals. With a comprehensive guide to answering all types of experiment related questions.

This is why our students are consistently able to come top in their practical exams as well as achieve an average of 93 in both physics and chemistry.

Old vs New Syllabus Exam Questions

Development Questions Concept Driven Calculation Practicals
Old Syllabus Weighting 30% 20 – 30% 20% 10%
New Syllabus Weighting 5 – 10% 30 – 40% 30 – 40% 10 – 20%
Description These are your long response type questions that are 5 – 7 marks in the old syllabus exams. In the New Syllabus there WILL still be these types of questions but much less. These types of questions require providing definitions, concepts and derivations. As there are less development type questions in the New Syllabus, it is replaced with new concepts. Since multiple new concepts are being introduced, there will inevitably be new calculation type questions. Again, with new concepts being introduced there is a higher focus on experiments and conducting practicals.

scroll right 🙂

Are past papers still relevant for the New HSC Syllabus?

IN SHORT, YES THEY STILL ARE!

WHY? The fundamentals of many dotpoints are still the same except for the ones that have been removed.

Hence, about 50-70% of past paper questions are still completely relevant!

Here is a summary of dotpoints that have been REMOVED. If come across them in past papers, just SKIP THEM! To save you time, we have indicated in each of our past papers the types of questions that are still relevant. 

Year 11 Chemistry

Topic
Section
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

Topic:Chemical Energy
Section:The living and non-living components of the Earth contain mixtures

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds

Topic:Metals
Section:Metals have been extracted and used for many thousands of years

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as uncombined metals or as alloys
  • identify why there are more metals available for people to use now than there were 200 years ago
  • analyse information to relate the chronology of the Bronze Age, the Iron Age and the modern era and possible future developments

Section:As metals and other elements were discovered, scientists recognised that patterns in their physical and chemical properties could be used to organise the elements into a Periodic Table

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • outline the history of the development of the Periodic Table including its origins, the original data used to construct it and the predictions made after its construction

Section:The relative abundance and ease of extraction of metals influences their value and breadth of use in the community

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • define the terms mineral and ore with reference to economic and non-economic deposits of natural resources
  • describe the relationship between the commercial prices of common metals, their actual abundances and relative costs of production
  • explain why ores are non-renewable resources
  • discuss the importance of predicting yield in the identification, mining and extraction of commercial ore deposits
  • justify the increased recycling of metals in our society and across the world
  • analyse information to compare the cost and energy expenditure involved in the extraction of aluminium from its ore and the recycling of aluminium
  • recount the steps taken to recycle aluminium

Topic:Water
Section:Water is distributed on Earth as a solid, liquid and gas

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • compare the state, percentage and distribution of water in the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere
  • outline the significance of the different states of water on Earth in terms of water as:
  • a constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in metabolism
  • a habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby terrestrial habitats
  • an agent of weathering of rocks both as liquid and solid
  • a natural resource for humans and other organisms

Section:Water has a higher heat capacity than many other liquids

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • explain why water’s ability to absorb heat is important to aquatic organisms and to life on earth generally
  • explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the implications for life if a body of water is affected by thermal pollution

Topic:Energy
Section:Living organisms make compounds which are important sources of energy

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify the photosynthetic origins of the chemical energy in coal, petroleum and natural gas
  • process and present information from secondary sources on the range of compounds found in either coal, petroleum or natural gas and on the location of deposits of the selected fossil fuel in Australia
Year 11 Physics

Topic
Section
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

Topic:The World Communicates
Section:The wave model can be used to explain how current technologies transfer information

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • describe the energy transformations required in one of the following:
    • Mobile telephone
    • Fax/modem
    • Radio & television

Topic:Electrical Energy in the Home
Section:Society has become increasingly dependent on electricity over the last 200 years

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • discuss how the main sources of domestic energy have changed over time
  • assess some of the impacts of changes in, and increased access to, sources of energy for a community
  • discuss some of the ways in which electricity can be provided in remote locationsidentify data sources, gather, process and analyse secondary information about the differing views of Volta and Galvani about animal and chemical electricity and discuss whether their different views contributed to increased understanding of electricity

Topic:Cosmic Engine
Section:Our Sun is just one star in the galaxy and ours is just on galaxy in the Universe

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • outline the historical development of models of the Universe from the time of Aristotle to the time of Newton
  • identify data sources, and gather, process and analyse information to assess one of the models of the Universe developed from the time of Aristotle to the time of Newton to identify limitations placed on the development of the model by the technology available at the time

Topic:Moving About
Section:ALL SECTIONS ARE RELEVANT

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

Year 11 Biology

Topic
Section
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

Topic:A Local Ecosystem
Section:The distribution, diversity and numbers of plants and animals found in ecosystems are determined by biotic and abiotic factors

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • compare the abiotic characteristics of aquatic and terrestrial environments
    process and analyse information obtained from a variety of sampling studies to justify the use of different sampling techniques to make population estimates when total counts cannot be performed

Section:Each local aquatic or terrestrial ecosystem is unique

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify examples of allelopathy, parasitism, mutualism and commensalism in an ecosystem and the role of organisms in each type of relationship
  • describe the role of decomposers in ecosystems
  • define the term adaptation and discuss the problems associated with inferring characteristics of organisms as adaptations for living in a particular habitat

Topic:Life on Earth
Section:The fossil record provides information about the subsequent evolution of living things

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

ALL DOTPOINTS REMOVED

Section:Analysis of the oldest sedimentary rocks provides evidence for the origin of life
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus
ALL DOTPOINTS REMOVED

Topic:Evolution of Australian Biota
Section:Evidence for the rearrangement of crustal plates and continental drift indicates that Australia was once part of an ancient super continent
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus
ALL DOTPOINTS REMOVED

Section:Continuation of species has resulted, in part, from the reproductive adaptations that have evolved in Australian plants and animals
Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus
ALL DOTPOINTS REMOVED

Topic:Patterns in Nature
Section:Organisms are made of cells that have similar structural characteristics

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • outline the historical development of the cell theory, in particular, the contributions of Robert Hooke and Robert Brown
  • describe evidence to support the cell theory

Section:Plants and animals have specialised structures to obtain nutrients from their environment

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • explain the relationship between the length and overall complexity of digestive systems of a vertebrate herbivore and a vertebrate carnivore with respect to:
    • the chemical composition of their diet
    • the functions of the structures involved

Section:Gaseous exchange and transport systems transfer chemicals through the internal and between the external environments of plants and animals

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify and compare the gaseous exchange surfaces in an insect, a fish, a frog and a mammal

Section:Maintenance of organisms requires growth and repair

Syllabus Dotpoints that are removed in the New Syllabus

  • identify mitosis as a process of nuclear division and explain its role
  • identify the sites of mitosis in plants, insects and mammals
  • explain the need for cytokinesis in cell division

Excited to Learn More?

  • Richard Shi Avatar

    Richard Shi

    5 star rating

    Clear, well-structured theory booklets which address syllabus dotpoints effectively + teachers that know their stuff and are relatable. Oh and... read more

    1/11/2018
  • Kelly Xiao Avatar

    Kelly Xiao

    5 star rating

    After I joined Synergy I became more confident, motivated and started enjoying studying physics and chemistry. My marks have improved... read more

    1/11/2018
  • Jarin Hossain Avatar

    Jarin Hossain

    5 star rating

    Great materials, resources and teaching that really focus on exam preparation. The teachers are really approachable when it comes to... read more

    1/11/2018
  • Gabe Avatar

    Gabe

    5 star rating

    Apart from chemistry, I've learnt so much from the teachers at Synergy. They all have amazing life experiences and their... read more

    1/11/2018
  • Bruce Qi Avatar

    Bruce Qi

    5 star rating

    I've been here for the past year and my marks in chemistry and physics have improved greatly. Great resources, teachers,... read more

    8/20/2017
  • Aaron Lam Avatar

    Aaron Lam

    5 star rating

    Before coming to this tutoring, I didn't understand the various concepts of chemistry and how to answer the questions. However,... read more

    8/19/2017
  • Abi Avatar

    Abi

    5 star rating

    After being at Synergy for a term, my ranking for physics went from average to top

    1/11/2018
  • Darren Ha Avatar

    Darren Ha

    5 star rating

    The teachers at Synergy have inspired me to start a career in engineering. I want to thank them for their... read more

    1/11/2018
  • Shabrina Yusri Avatar

    Shabrina Yusri

    5 star rating

    I've been going to Synergy for the past year for Ext 2 Maths, and honestly they are really great at... read more

    8/23/2017
  • Brandon Huynh Avatar

    Brandon Huynh

    5 star rating

    Synergy has created an effective learning culture. They have really great teachers who push you to exceed expectations.

    1/11/2018
  • Natalie Chandra Avatar

    Natalie Chandra

    5 star rating

    Synergy has helped me so much with chemistry and ext 1 math. I was able to achieve a band 6... read more

    1/11/2018
  • Amal Joyson Avatar

    Amal Joyson

    5 star rating

    Synergy really helped understand concepts in chemistry and physics.

    8/19/2017
  • Prima Sutandyo Avatar

    Prima Sutandyo

    5 star rating

    The teachers are really easy to communicate too, really helpful and they explain both easy and hard concepts very simply.

    1/11/2018
  • Kristie Chandra Avatar

    Kristie Chandra

    5 star rating

    Synergy is dedicated to its students. The resources contained really useful exam techniques. They also strived to ensure we fully... read more

    1/11/2018
  • Shimron Pun Avatar

    Shimron Pun

    5 star rating

    Synergy teachers are enthusiastic and dedicated to their work and students. Their attentiveness to each and every one of us... read more

    1/11/2018